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Early Civilizations in Afghanistan

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The chalcolithic period beginning in 3000 B.C. in the central Asia that was the first specific civilization in the bank of Indus River and also near to the Hilmand River in the Mundigak and Sistan areas of Afghanistan and also in Anow of Uzbekistan in the Mesopotamia developed much cultural relationship between Mundegak and Mohenjodaro existed during this age. Those artefacts discovered under Miseu Casel mission from Mundegak in 1951 are similar to those artefacts excavated by British archaeologist Marshal, who excavated Mohenjodaro of Indus valley. This discovery of figurines from Mundigak and the architecture discovered from Mohenjodaro were very similar to those artefacts and monuments which were excavated later on from these two sites and belonged to later stages.

Afghanistan as a famous cradle of the humanitarian civilization in the Asian large continent has recorded numerous examples prides and big achievements of bravery in the golden pages of the history. The brave peoples of this country have created civilization on their own hesitative or have dressed Afghan characteristic. To the civilization of other, countries of the world and transferred them to the neighbour countries. Scholars of the world have given different titles to this country through their researches. Some of them know Afghanistan as a first bird place of Asian civilizations; others consider Afghanistan as the juncture point of famous Asian civilizations. Many researchers have given the title of the cradle of civilization to this country, where the others called it the homeland of councils. What is must remarkable is that some of these scholars know this country as main factor for political stabilisation in the middle Asia (Bawary,7,1985).

Historical records indicate that trade relations existed between ancient Afghanistan and its neighbouring regions. The existing information shows the fact that around 3000 B.C. there existed trade of precious stones [eg.lapislazuli] between Afghanistan and Mesopotamia. These relations expanded at the beginning of the first century A.P. The international routes, like Northern route (silk route) central Route (Kabul ?Peshawar) provided appropriate grounds for trade transactions in which Afghanistan. Mainly duet its geographical location played the key role(Bawray,5,1989 ).

Independence governmental of Afghanistan during third B.C. to the first A.D. century had important role in the ancient world. When Alexander returns to the Greece he is dead in 323 B.C. but his possessor country divide between has generals these area a lot of trouble between surveyors and generals to take others pleases day by day it is going to become to hot. At last time from these groups have befit Sham and Egypt during in the year 250 B.C. they got their freedom.At the first time Dewdots that he had a very good army for fighting and also he was defiled by the great people from this reason they established a governmental in Balkh north of Afghanistan. After that his son second Dewdots make a very friendly relationship them. Two other family names Outadyam and Oukrateed after or there get the power in this case the flow the government of Bakhtar. With the conquests of Alexander the great close relation between the Mediterranean ousts and heart of Asia came to existence. This relation further developed during the greater Kushans. From the mixture of the Greece culture with the Avista Vedic civilization, Deep changes in the fields of religion, industry, building, literature, language, writing, and other material and spiritual appearances came to existence. Such change caused. The invention of the Artistic school Greek-o-Bakhtrian. In the part of Greek-o- Buddhic civilization, we can mention the name of the place where this civilization developed. This place is called Gandahara. Historians and scholars say that Gandahara is an important strategic region between Bactria and India. Herodotus and Straboon say that the Gandahara region is located between Kunar and Kabul [now Nangarhar]. Scholars believe that the discoverers of the Gandahara Art Greek ? o ? Bactrian because after defeating the Sahaks, they came from Bactria to the Southern part of Hindukush and settled down in Gandahara. Here, their art was mixed with Buddhist philosophy and discovered Gandahara art. It is seen obviously that Gandahara came to existence from the tiuching of the two sprits mixing of two cultures, combination of two ways of life, mixing of two beliefs and the existence of series of thoughts in one definite point (Mahmood,24,198 ).

The Kushan are the yuch-chi people, who because of the Huns and Chinese pressures were obliged to migrate to Ariana. When they come to Ariana and Bactria, the Kushan accepted Zoroastrianism and Brahmanism. Buddhism spread into Ariana at the patronage of Kanishka the Great, this religion spread widely not only in Afghanistan but also through Afghanistan to central Asia, China and the Far East. Kanishka was so fond of this religion that he spent lost of money for preaching it to all the people of his realm and outside. He built many more villous temples inside the country. But the most important thing about Buddhism in Afghanistan was the great change that took place from of the Buddhism in Peshawar through which he changed Hinayana to Mahayana. In Mahayana, people not only worshipped Buddha as God, but they also made statues and drew his pictures, which were installed in temples. Before this change, people used to worship symbols of Buddhism in temples. (Azizi, 2, 1989)

The Kushan and the Hephthalites left over coins, either excavated or accidentally found, are showing that these empires had a history, full dignity as well as glory. In addition to such differences existed between the coins of these two dynasties, there will be discussed the differences and similarities between these coins.

Both dynasties scraped special patterns and forms. The Kushan fire temple scripted on their coins age were imitated and thus get prevalence on the Hephthalites coins. Other characteristics are also observed on these coins which were more than that of the Hephthalites, coins which were made of copper on the other Hand. More over, the aspects of their coins than the Hephthalites did. Based upon the above mentioned points, one precisely can predict that the Kushan dynasty was far more advanced than the Hephthalites dynasty with regard to the political, economic and trade relations (Bawary, 15, 1990 ).